Having sensitive teeth can mean anything from getting a mild twinge to having severe discomfort that can last for several hours.
It can also be an early warning sign of more serious dental problems.
Many people suffer from sensitive teeth and it can start at any time. It is more common in people aged between 20 and 40, although it can affect anyone from teenagers to people over 70. Women are more likely to be affected than men.
The part of the tooth we can see above the gum is covered by a layer of enamel that protects the softer dentine underneath.
If the dentine is exposed, a tooth can become sensitive. This usually happens where the tooth and the gum meet and the enamel layer is much thinner.
Here are some causes of sensitivity:
Other causes of pain from sensitivity may be:
You are more likely to feel the sensitivity when drinking or eating something cold, from cold air catching your teeth, and sometimes with hot foods or drinks. Some people have sensitivity when they have sweet or acidic food and drink. The pain can come and go, with some times being worse than others.
There are many brands of toothpaste on the market made to help ease the pain of sensitive teeth. Use the toothpaste twice a day to brush your teeth. You can also rub it onto the sensitive areas.
These toothpastes can take anything from a few days to several weeks to take effect. Your dentist should be able to advise you on which type of toothpaste would be best for you.
You may find that hot, cold, sweet or acidic drinks, or foods like ice cream can bring on sensitivity, so you may want to avoid these. If you have sensitivity when brushing your teeth with cold water from the tap, you may need to use warm water instead. It is important you do not avoid brushing your teeth regularly as this could make the problem worse.
During an examination the dentist will talk to you about your symptoms. They will look at your teeth to find out what is causing the sensitivity and to find the best way of treating it.
The dentist may treat the affected teeth with special de-sensitising products to help relieve the symptoms.
Fluoride gels, rinses or varnishes can be applied to sensitive teeth. These can be painted onto the teeth at regular appointments one or two weeks apart, to build up some protection. Sensitivity can take some time to settle, and you may need to have several appointments.
If this still does not help, your dentist may seal or fill around the neck of the tooth, where the tooth and gum meet, to cover exposed dentine.
In very serious cases it may be necessary to root-fill the tooth.